Effects of constant temperatures on oviposition and immature development of Simulium bidentatum (Diptera: Simuliidae), a vector of bovine Onchocerca (Nematoda: Onchocercidae) in central Kyushu, Japan
Journal of Medical Entomology 32 (6), 801-806, 1995, The Entomological Society of America
Upik Kesumawati Hadi and Hiroyuki Takaoka
Abstract: Laboratory developmental studies were carried out on Simulium bidentatum (Shirald) under constant air and water temperatures (7, 10, 13, 16, 19, 22, 25, and 28°C). The median time required for female flies to complete oocyte maturation after blood feeding decreased from 8 to 1.5 d and the median time from blood feeding to oviposition decreased from 16 to 3 d as air temperature increased from 7 to 28°C. Air temperatures from 16 to 22°C were most suitable for oviposition. An average of 61.4% of eggs hatched. Egg developmental period decreased from 17 to 4.5 d when water temperature increased from 7 to 19°C and decreased to 3.5 d when water temperature was between 22 and 28°C. Larval and pupal development occurred at water temperatures > 13°C, but was most successful from 16 to 22°C. Seven (in 16 lots) or 6 instars (in 1 lot) were indicated by using the Dyar rule. We conclude that S. bidentatum is adapted to moderate weather conditions in spring and autumn and that ~7 generations of this species occur per year in Oita, Japan.