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Ragam Jenis Nyamuk Di Sekitar Kandang Babi Dan Kaitannya Dalam Penyebaran Japanese Encephalitis di Sumatera Utara

Posted by on January 19, 2012

(THE MOSQUITOES SPECIES IN PIG PEN AREA AND ITS RELATION TO THE TRANSMISSION OF JAPANESE ENCEPHALITIS IN NORTH SUMATERA)

Upik Kesumawati Hadi 1, Susi Soviana 1, Tatty Syafriati 2

1 Bagian Parasitologi dan Entomologi Kesehatan, Departemen Ilmu Penyakit Hewan dan Kesehatan Masyarakat Veteriner, Fakultas Kedokteran Hewan,  Institut Pertanian Bogor
Jalan Agatis Kampus Darmaga Bogor 16680
Email: upikke@ipb.ac.id, Telp (0251) 8421784
2Balai Besar Penelitian Veteriner
Jalan R.E. Marthadinata 30, PO Box 151, Bogor 16114

ABSTRACT

The mosquitoes species in pig pen area and its relation to the trasmission of Japanese Encephalitis (JE) in North Sumatra Province was studied as the first step of the investigation on JE prevalence in Indonesia. The aim of this research is to determined the mosquitoes species that can be a potential vectors of JE and its relation to the prevalence of JE reactor of pigs in North Sumatra.
Mosquito collections were carried out by using ultra violete light trap, Magoon trap and human landing collections, and serological study was done by competitive enzyme linked-immunosorbent assay (C-ELISA) methode. The results showed several mosquitoes species that can be a potential vectors of JE was found in this province, i.e. Culex tritaeniorhynchus, Cx. quinquefasciatus, and Cx. fuscocephalus. The environmental conditions and the pig farm and horses stable management supported the development of ideal breeding places for mosquitoes and other blood sucking flies. It was reported also that the prevalence of JE reactors in pig farms and horse stable in North Sumatra was high (71.67%). The high prevalence of JE reactors indicated that the infection of JE was actively occured between pigs-mosquitoes-pigs in those areas.

Keywords: Mosquitoes, pig, Japanese encephalitis, North Sumatera

ABSTRAK

Ragam jenis nyamuk di sekitar kandang babi dan kaitannya dalam penyebaran penyakit radang otak (Japanese Encephalitis/JE) di daerah propinsi Sumatera Utara telah diteliti sebagai langkah awal usaha pengamatan kejadian JE di wilayah Indonesia. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah menentukan jenis-jenis nyamuk yang dapat berpotensi sebagai vektor JE dan kaitannya dengan prevalensi reaktor JE pada ternak babi yang diteliti di Sumatera Utara. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa jenis-jenis nyamuk yang berpotensi sebagai vektor JE yang ditemukan di daerah ini adalah Culex tritaeniorhynchus, Cx. quinquefasciatus, and Cx. fuscocephalus. Kondisi lingkungan dan manajemen peternakan babi dan kuda di beberapa daerah Sumatera Utara mendukung berkembangnya tempat perkembangbiakan yang ideal bagi berbagai jenis nyamuk dan serangga penghisap darah lainnya. Diketahui pula bahwa tingkat keberadaan infeksi (prevalensi) oleh virus JE pada beberapa peternakan babi dan kuda di Sumatera Utara ini cukup tinggi yaitu 71,67%.

Makalah lengkap dapat dilihat pada Jurnal Veteriner Desember 2011 Vol 12 No 4: 326-334

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